Muriel Spark was a Scottish novelist, short story writer, poet and essayist.
Born in the Bruntsfield area of Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1918, she was at the top of her profession for more than half a century and in 2008, The Times named her as No. 8 in its list of "the 50 greatest British writers since 1945".
Muriel Spark began writing seriously after World War II, under her married name, beginning with poetry and literary criticism and in 1947 she became editor of the Poetry Review.
She later received the James Tait Black Memorial Prize in 1965, the US Ingersoll Foundation TS Eliot Award in 1992 and the David Cohen Prize in 1997.
She became an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in 1967 and Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1993, in recognition of her services to
1998, she was awarded the Golden PEN Award by English PEN for a "Lifetime's Distinguished Service to Literature".
She also received eight honorary doctorates in her lifetime.
She died in 2006.